• When people feel the ground shake, they exclaim, "It's an earthquake!" Strictly speaking, what they are feeling is ground motion caused by an earthquake.
  • As a technical term, ground motion is used to distinguish this movement from the earthquake itself.
  • An earthquake is a destructive slip movement inside a rock plate deep under the ground. We call the plane of this movement a fault, and the point at which a destructive slip movement starts is called the hypocenter. Such destructive slip movements cause vibration that propagates in every direction.
  • Of all the natural disasters, earthquake is one of the most devastating one as it occurs suddenly, damages a significant number of infrastructures, and takes away lives.
  • Many of the existing prediction techniques provide high false alarm, therefore, lack of accurate prediction process is a contributor to this catastrophic consequence of earthquake.
  • CATS Photonic Rayleigh wave monitoring technology integrated with AI-based methods have created a new scope for improving this prediction process due to their high sensitivity and accuracy when compared to other techniques.
Seismic Monitoring
  • For earthquake detection, it is important to understand the two types of seismic waves emitted by earthquakes: P-waves and S-waves.
    • p-waves are less powerful and travel relatively quickly, so early recognition of these waves is critical in order to maximize warning time.
    • S-waves, or shear waves, oscillate sinusoidally and move perpendicular to their direction of travel. These waves cause most of the earthquake-induced damage such as the destruction of buildings and landslides.
  • Unlike p-waves, s-waves cannot travel through gas or liquid and travel at a slower rate of 2- 5km/second.
  • VEDA is an efficient earthquake warning system, VEDA monitors earthquake using Rayleigh waves that quickly detects the p-waves and issue a warning before the arrival of these s-waves.
  • Rayleigh waves are a type of surface acoustic wave that travel on solids
    • Typical in-plane wave amplitude decays on the surface as 1/v r, where r is the distance from the signal source
    • A 1mm vibrational amplitude imparted 15kms away, decays to a vibrational amplitude of 8.165 m
  • VEDA monitoring real time vibrations with high sensitivity (nanometre resolution), one can also listen to the sound at the observation location, remotely.
  • Predicting the time, location and magnitude of an earthquake is a challenging job as an earthquake does not show specific patterns resulting in inaccurate predictions.
  • CATS Artificial Intelligence (AI) has capability to find hidden patterns in data and produce a promising outcome.
  • Such methods can significantly reduce damages as the concerned area can be evacuated based on the forecasting. To facilitate the prediction process, this article reviewed the existing techniques that involve AI-based earthquake prediction.
  • VEDA and AI-based techniques in earthquake prediction will further help the researchers to predict and develop more accurate methods.
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